durpina

Dynamic Upstream Reversy Proxying wIth Nice API

Durpina

Dynamic Upstream Reversy Proxying wIth Nice API

A supremely flexible, easy to use dynamic Nginx/OpenResty upstream module based on lua-resty-upstream by toruneko.

Configurable and scriptable load balancing, server health checks, addition and removal of servers to an upstream, and more. You don't have to study the API to use it, and you don't have to be a Lua wiz to script it.

Installation

Install OpenResty, then use the opm tool to install durpina:

    opm install slact/durpina

Example Config

    #-- nginx.conf:
    http {
      lua_shared_dict upstream    1m; #-- shared memory to be used by durpina. 1mb should be neough
      lua_socket_log_errors       off; #-- don't clutter the error log when upstream severs fail
      
      upstream foo {
        server localhost:8080; #--default weight is 1
        server host1:8080 weight=5;
        server host2:8080 weight=7;
        balancer_by_lua_block {
          --load balance this upstream in round-robin mode
          require "durpina.balancer" "round-robin"
          --note: the above line is Lua syntax sugar equivalent to
          -- require("durpina.balancer")("round-robin")
        }
      }
      
      #-- 
      upstream bar {
        server 0.0.0.0; #-- nginx config syntax needs at least 1 server.
        #-- the address 0.0.0.0 is treated by Durpina as a placeholder and is ignored
        balancer_by_lua_block {
          require "durpina.balancer" "ip-hash"
        }
      }
      
      init_worker_by_lua_block {
        local Upstream = require "durpina.upstream"
        
        --Use the "upstream" lua_shared_dict declared above
        --setting the resolver is required for upstream server DNS resolution
        Upstream.init("upstream", {resolver="8.8.8.8"})
    
        local upfoo = Upstream.get("foo")
        --add a health check to the upstream
        upfoo:add_monitor("http", {uri="/still_alive"})
        
        local upbar = Upstream.get("bar")
        --this is an upstream with no servers
        
        --peers can be added anytime
        
        upbar:add_peer("localhost:8080 weight=1") --hostnames are resolved once when added, just like Nginx would do
        upbar:add_peer({host="10.0.0.2", port=8090, weight=7, fail_timeout=10}) --can be added as a table, too
        
        upbar:add_monitor("tcp", {port=10000}) -- check if able to make tcp connection to server on port 10000
      }
      
      server {
        #-- here's where we make use of the upstream
        listen 80;
        location /foo {
          proxy_pass http://foo;
        }
        location /bar {
          proxy_pass http://bar;
        }
      }
      
      server {
        #-- upstream info and management
        
        listen 8080;
        #-- POST /set_upstream_peer_weight/upstream_name/peer_name
        #-- request body is the peer's new weight
        location ~/set_upstream_peer_weight/foo/(.*)/(\d+) {
          content_by_lua_block {
            local Upstream = require "durpina.upstream"
            local up = Upstream.get("foo")
            
            local peername = ngx.var[1]
            local weight = tonumber(ngx.var[2])
            local peer = up:get_peer(peername)
            if peer and weight then
              peer:set_weight(weight)
              ngx.say("weight set!")
            else
              ngx.status = 404
              ngx.say("peer not found or weight invalid")
            end
          }
        }
      }
    }

API

Upstream

      Upstream = require "durpina.upstream"

Upstream.init(shdict_name, options)

      init_worker_by_lua_block {
        Upstream.init("myshdict", {resolver="8.8.8.8"})
      }

Initialize Durpina to use the `lua_shared_dict` named shdict_name. This call is required before anything else, and must be present in the `init_worker_by_lua` string, block or file. A block of size 1m is sufficient for most setups.

The options argument supports the following parameters:

  • resolver: a string or array or strings to be used as nameservers for DNS resolution. This is required if server hostnames need to be resolved after Nginx startup.

Upstream.get(upstream_name)

      local upstream = Upstream.get("foo")

Returns the upstream named upstream_name, with peers initialized according to the contents of the corresponding upstream block. Upstream peers marked as backup or with address 0.0.0.0 are ignored.

upstream.name

The name of this upstream.

upstream:get_peer(peer_name)

      local peer = upstream:get_peer("localhost:8080")

Returns the peer with name peer_name or nil if no such peer exists in this upstream.

upstream:add_peer(peer_config)

      local peer, err = upstream:add_peer("localhost:8080 fail_timeout=15 weight=7")
      local peer, err = upstream:add_peer({name="localhost:8080", fail_timeout=15, weight=7})
      local peer, err = upstream:add_peer({host="localhost", port=8080, fail_timeout=15, weight=7})

Add peer to the upstream. The peer_config parameter may be a string with the formatting of the `server` upstream directive, or a Lua table with the following keys: name ("host:port"), host, port, fail_timeout, weight. Either name or host must be present in the table.

No two peers in an upstream block may have the same name.

Returns the newly added peer or nil, error

upstream:remove_peer(peer)

      local peer = upstream:get_peer("localhost:8080")
      loal ok, err = upstream:remove_peer(peer)

Removes the peer from the upstream.

upstream:get_peers(selector)

      local peers = upstream:get_peers("all")

Returns an array of peers matching the selector, which can be one of: nil (same as all), "all", "failing", "down", "temporary_down", "permanent_down".

upstream:add_monitor(name, opts)

      local ok, err = upstream:add_monitor("http", {url="/health_check"})

Adds a `monitor` to the upstream. Monitors periodically check each peer for health, and are discussed in more detail in the Monitors section.

upstream:info()

      print(upstream:info())


      /* output */
      {
        "name":"weighted_roundrobin",
        "revision":2,
        "peers":[{
            "name":"localhost:8083",
            "address":"127.0.0.1",
            "weight":1,
            "state":"up"
          },{
            "name":"127.0.0.1:8084",
            "address":"127.0.0.1",
            "weight":10,
            "state":"failing"
          },{
            "name":"127.0.0.1:8085",
            "address":"127.0.0.1",
            "weight":15,
            "state":"down"
          }],
        "monitors":[{
            "id":"http",
            "name":"http"
          }]
      }
    

Returns a JSON string containing state info about this upstream.

Peer

Peers are servers in an upstream. They are initialized internally -- although there's a Peer.new method, you really shouldn't use it. Instead, peers are created with `upstream:add_peer()` and by being loaded from upstream blocks.

      local peer = upstream:get_peer("127.0.0.1")

peer.name

The name of the peer, of the form "hostname:port"

peer.port

The port, obviously.

peer.initial_weight

The weight the peer was originally loaded with, unmodified by later calls to `peer:set_weight(n)`

peer:get_address()

      local address, err = peer:get_address()

Returns the peer address if it has already been resolved. If the address is unavailable or the DNS resolution has failed, returns nil, err.

peer:get_weight()

      local weight = peer:get_weight()

Returns the peer's current weight.

peer:set_weight(weight)

      local ok, err = peer:set_weight(15)

Sets the peer's current weight for all Nginx workers. The weight must be a positive integer.

peer:get_upstream()

      local upstream = peer:get_upstream()

Returns the `upstream` of this peer.

peer:set_state(state)

      peer:set_state("down")

Sets the state of the peer, shared between all Nginx workers. Can be one of up, down, or temporary_down

peer:is_down(kind)

Returns true if the peer is down. The parameter kind can be nil or one of "any", "permanent" or "temporary", and reflects the kind down state the peer is in. The default value of kind is "any".

peer:is_failing()

Returns true if the peer is currently failing; that is, if it has recorded more than one failure in the last fail_timeout time interval.

peer:add_fail()

Increment the failure counter of the peer by 1. This counter is shared among all Nginx workers.

peer:resolve(force)

Resolve the peer hostname to its address if necessary. if force is true, overwrites the existing address if it's present. Like other peer updates, the newly resolved address is automatically shared between Nginx workers.

In order for peer DNS resolution to work, Upstream.init() must be given a resolver.

Balancer

      require "durpina.balancer"

The balancer is invoked in upstream blocks using the `balancer_by_lua` block:

      upstream foo {
        localhost:8080 weight=2;
        localhost:8081;
        balancer_by_lua_block {
          require "durpina.balancer" "round-robin"
          --this is syntactic sugar equivalent to
          -- require("durpina.balancer").balance("round-robin")
        }
      }

Balancer(algorithm, args...)

Balancer.balance(algorithm, args...)

      Balancer.balance(algorithm)

Balance the upstream using the specified algorithm, The following algorithms are supported:

  • "round-robin" (weighted)

  • "unweighted-round-robin"

  • "ip-hash", consistent routing based on source IP

  • "consistent-hash", consistent routing based on custom request variables

The args... parameters are passed directly to the balancer. Currently only the consistent-hash algorithm expects a parameter, the value to be hashed:

    balancer_by_lua_block {
      --load-balance by the first regex capture in the request url
      require "durpina.balancer" ("consistent-hash", ngx.var[1])
    }

Monitor

      upstream:add_monitor(name, opts)

Monitors are added to upstreams to check the health status of peers, and to run periodic maintenance tasks. Monitors are not initialized directly, but are added via the `upstream:add_monitor()` call.

The monitor name identifies the kind of monitor being added. "Several monitors" are already included, and more can be added with `Monitor.register()`.

Each new monitors is passed the opts table of options. This table may only contain numeric or string values. All monitors handle the opts key id, which uniquely identifies a monitor in an upstream. When absent, the id defaults to the monitor name. Therefore to have more than one http monitor, at least one must be given an id:

      upstream:add_monitor("http") --pings the root url
      upstream:add_monitor("http", {id="http_hello", url="/hello", interval=30})

In total, the following opts are used by all monitors:

  • id**: uniquely identifies the monitor. Default: monitor name

  • interval**: time between each check. One peer is checked at the end of every interval, split between all Nginx workers. Can be a number or an Nginxy time string ("10s", "30m", etc.) Default: Monitor.default_interval (5 seconds)

  • port**: Perform the monitor check by connecting to this port instead of the peer's upstream port.

  • peers**: The kind of peers to check over. Can be one of the selectors from `upstream:get_peers()`. Default: "all"

Predefined Monitors

http

Send an HTTP request, add failure if the request fails.

      upstream:add_monitor("http", {id="http-hello", url="/hello", ok_codes="2xx", interval="5m"})

opts:

  • url**: /path/to/request Default: "/"

  • ok_codes**: response codes considered "ok". space-delimited string with code numbers and 'Nxx' notation. Default: "101 102 2xx 3xx"

  • header_***: all opts prefixed by "header_" become request headers

  • method**: request method. Default: "GET"

  • body**: request body. Default: nil

tcp

Try to connect to server via a TCP socket, add failure if the connection fails.

      upstream:add_monitor("tcp", {id="tcp-ping", timeout=200})

opts:

haproxy-agent-check

Try to connect to peer over TCP and read one line of text. The data is processed according to the HAProxy agent-check specification. The statuses "drain" and "maint" are treated as "down", and "up" and "ready" are both treated as "up".

      upstream:add_monitor("haproxy-agent-check", {timeout=200})

opts**:

http-haproxy-agent-check

Same as haproxy-agent-check, but over HTTP.

      upstream:add_monitor("haproxy-agent-check", {url="/haproxy_agent_status"})

opts:

  • url**: /path/to/request Default: "/"

  • ok_codes**: response codes considered "ok". space-delimited string with code numbers and 'Nxx' notation. Default: "101 102 2xx 3xx"

  • header_***: all opts prefixed by "header_" become request headers

Registering New Monitors

New monitors are added with Monitor.register

Monitor.register(name, check)

      Monitor.register("fancy_monitor", check_function)
      -- or --
      Monitor.register("fancy_monitor", check_table)

Register a monitor by name to be added to upstreams later. Check can be a table or function:

      init_worker_by_lua_block {
        -- register as a table
        Monitor.register("mymonitor", {
          init = initialization_function, -- (optional)
          check = peer_checking_function, --(required)
          interval = default interval for this monitor --(optional)
        }
        
        --register as a function
        Monitor.register("mymonitor", peer_checking_function)
          -- is equivalent to --
        Monitor.register("mymonitor", {
          check = peer_checking_function
        })
      }

monitor check_table.init

The init function is called every time the monitor is added to an upstream. It is responsible for initializing monitor state and validating opts. It has the signature

      function init_monitor(upstream, shared, local_state)

The parameters are:

  • upstream** the upstream this monitor is being added to.

  • shared** is an openresty shared dictionary namespaced to this instance of the monitor.

  • local_state** is a worker-local table for tracking execution state, caching, and configuration. It is initialized as a copy of the opts table passed to upstream:add_monitor()

monitor check_table.check

The check function is called on each successive peer at the configured interval. It is responsible for changing peer state with `peer:set_state()` and other `peer` functions. It has the signature

      function check_monitor(upstream, peer, shdict, local_state)

The parameters are:

  • upstream** the upstream this monitor is being added to.

  • peer** the peer that needs to be checked.

  • shared** is an openresty shared dictionary namespaced to this instance of the monitor.

  • local_state** is a worker-local table for tracking execution state, caching, and configuration. It is initialized as a copy of the opts table passed to upstream:add_monitor()

More details on how to create monitors will be added later.

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Authors

slact

License

mit

Dependencies

Versions